The hard disk platters are rotating at very high speed, at the time that the heads arrive at the correct cylinder, the actual sector that is needed could be at any position in its orbit. Latency is the time that the drive must wait for the correct sector to come around to where the read/write heads could pick up the data.
A local area network technology developed by Microsoft Corporation and distributed by Microsoft, IBM (as IBM LAN Server), and other original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). LAN Manager connects computers running the MS-DOS, OS/2, and UNIX operating systems and allows users to share files and system resources such as hard disks and printers and to run distributed applications using a client-server architecture.
Last In, First Out
Abbreviated LIFO (pronounced “lie-foe”). A method of processing a queue in which items are removed in inverse order relative to the order in which they were added – that is, the last in is the first out. Such an order is typical of data in a stack data structure.
Pronounced “led-ing.” The space, expressed in points, between lines of type, measured from the baseline (bottom) of one line to the baseline of the next; derived from the traditional typesetting practice of inserting thin bars of lead between lines of metal type.
Least Significant Bit
Abbreviated LSB. In a sequence of one or more bytes, the low-order (usually rightmost) bit of a binary number.
A device that connects a computer to a communications line and converts a signal into an acceptable form for transmission; generally a modem of other such device.
A text-editing program that numbers each line of text, working with the document on a line-by-line rather than on a word-by-word basis.
A program that links compiled modules and data files to create an executable program. A liner can also have other functions, such as creation of libraries.
Also known as reverse-byte ordering. A method of storing a number so that the least significant byte appears first in the number. For example, given the hexadecimal number A02Bh, the little endian method would cause the number to be stored as 2BA0 and the big endian method would cause the number to be stored as A02B. The little endian method is used by Intel microprocessors; Motorola microprocessors use the big endian method.
As a verb, to place information from storage into memory for processing (if it is data) or for execution (if it is program code). As a noun, load refers to the total computing burden a system carries at one time. In electronics, it is the amount of current drawn by a device. In communications, load refers to the amount of traffic on a line.
A utility that loads the executable code of a program into memory for execution. On most microcomputers, the loader is an invisible part of the operating system and is automatically invoked when a program is run.
A method of managing one or more tasks, jobs, or processes by scheduling and simultaneously executing portions of them on two or more microprocessors.
A PC architecture designed to speed up system performance by allowing some expansion adapters to communicate directly with the microprocessor, bypassing the normal system bus entirely. Computers that do not have a local bus are generally restricted to communication speeds of 8 MHz for Micro Channel-based computers. In the emerging technology, there are two primary types of local bus architecture: the VESA local bus (also called the VL-bus) and Intel’s Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) local bus. Local bus capability must be built into a system’s motherboard – it is not possible to convert an ISA-,EISA-, or Micro Channel-based computer to a local bus system.
The process of altering a program so that it is appropriate for the area in which it is used. For example, the developers of a word-processing program for different countries or languages because the correct order of characters in one language might be incorrect in another.
In multiprocessor systems, the memory on the same card or high-speed bus as a particular processor. Typically, memory local to one processor cannot be accessed by another without some form of permission.
An adjective describing a type of modem or other communications device that can transmit over long distances.
Low Level Format
An electronic circuit that allows all frequencies below a specified frequency to pass through it.
A measure of the amount of light radiated by a given source, such as a computer display screen. Also, the perceived brightness component of a given colour, as opposed to its hue or its saturation.